کتاب دانش - Ketabe Danesh
What would it be like if the comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko so vividly captured by Rosetta, would plummet into the downtown Los Angeles!
It is the destination of the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft mission, launched on 2 March 2004, which "woke up" from hibernation mode on 20 January 2014 to monitor the comet and select a suitable site for an attempted landing in November 2014 by its Philae lander. Like all comets, Churyumov-Gerasimenko is named after its discoverers.
On 15 September the Rosetta mission will announce the primary and back up landing sites for comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.
This video reviews the five shortlisted landing sites, why they were selected and how the comet’s unusual ‘duck’ shape affected the choice.
The Rosetta orbiter has been studying the comet since May and choosing the right place to land is crucial in order to examine the comet further. The orbiter’s data – together with that from the Philae lander – will provide unprecedented insights into our solar system.
The film also covers the preparation by scientists, members of the mission control team at the European Space Operations Centre at Darmstadt, in Germany, and the challenges ahead.
It was first observed in 1969, when several astronomers from Kiev visited the Alma-Ata Astrophysical Institute in Kazakhstan to conduct a survey of comets.
The comet has now been observed from Earth on seven approaches to the Sun: in 1969, 1976, 1982, 1989, 1996, 2002 and 2009.
It was also imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2003, which allowed estimates of its size and shape to be made – an irregular object roughly 3 x 5 km across.
The comet will next come to perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) on August 13, 2015.
Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is releasing the Earthly equivalent of two glasses of water into space every second. The observations were made by the Microwave Instrument for Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO), aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft on June 6, 2014.
MIRO first detected water vapor from the comet when the Rosetta spacecraft was about 217,000 miles (350,000 kilometers) away from it. At the time, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was 363 million miles (583 million kilometers) from the sun.
After the initial June 6 discovery, water vapor was also detected every time the MIRO instrument was pointed toward the comet. Observations are continuing to monitor variability in the production rate, and to determine the global gas production rate, as a function of its distance from the sun.
The gas production rate that MIRO determined provides scientists a measure of the evolution of the comet as it moves both toward, and then away, from the sun. The gas production rate is also important to the Rosetta navigation team controlling the spacecraft, as this flowing gas can alter the trajectory of spacecraft.
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